For in spite of itself any movement that thinks and acts in terms of an ‘ism becomes so involved in reaction against other ‘isms that it is unwittingly controlled by them. For it then forms its principles by reaction against them instead of by a comprehensive, constructive survey of actual needs, problems, and possibilities.
Skepticism becomes the mark and even the pose of the educated mind. It is no longer directed against this and that article of the older creeds but is rather a bias against any kind of far-reaching ideas, and a denial of systematic participation on the part of such ideas in the intelligent direction of affairs.
Topics: Doubt, Skepticism
Modern life means democracy, democracy means freeing intelligence for independent effectivenessthe emancipation of mind as an individual organ to do its own work. We naturally associate democracy, to be sure, with freedom of action, but freedom of action without freed capacity of thought behind it is only chaos.
- William James American Philosopher
- Charles Sanders Peirce American Philosopher
- Mortimer J. Adler American Philosopher
- George Santayana Spanish Philosopher
- Eric Hoffer American Philosopher
- Carl Rogers American Psychologist
- Nicholas Murray Butler American Philosopher
- Will Durant American Historian
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau French Philosopher
- Robert Maynard Hutchins American Educator